Sunday, May 24, 2020
Marinelly Gonzalez Dr. Edwards Com 123 Cons of Abortion wrong and looked down upon by a lot of religions. Some women use abortion as a type of birth control. They sleep with men and do not use protection and think nothing of it to go to the clinic as many as five times in their life to have an abortion. A con against abortion is the nagging thought that a woman went to a clinic, had an abortion, and thus the world was prevented from seeing the birth of the only person capable of attaining a leadership role and initiating a peace accord between warring factions in the Middle East, thus preventing decades of strife and murder. A stable home life is not a guarantee of talent, and illegitimate children have shown themselves to beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For tens of thousands of women with heart disease, kidney disease, severe hypertension, sickle-cell anemia and severe diabetes, and other illnesses that can be life-threatening, the availability of legal abortion has helped avert serious medical complications that could have resulted from childbirth. Before legal abortion, such womens choices were limited to dangerous illegal abortion or dangerous childbirth.A woman is more than a fetus. Though a woman might be pregnant with a child, she still is her own person and has every right to decide what she wants to do with her baby. Outlawing abortion is discriminatory. Anti abortion laws discriminate against low income women who are forced to back alley abortions, where they can become infected. Rich people can travel to anywhere they need to go to find the proper care that they need. If abortion is outlawed then more children will be having children. Abortion should not be a form of birth control, but if something does happen there should be the option of abortion there so the wrong mother doesnt have to raise a child at such a young age. Every child should be a wanted child. If abortion is illegal then there would be a lot of children b rought into this world that werent wanted. This could cause more damage to the child than anything. Abortion should be legal for those women who are raped. Women who are raped sometimes can not even bare the thought of bringing that child into their lives andShow MoreRelatedPros And Cons Of Abortion1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesevident that the topic of abortion is very controversial. Many people have been asking themselves the same question for many years now, do you think abortion is ethical? Abortion has been a heated argument amongst citizens, political activists, and several religions all across the world. Those who are against abortion are known as pro-life and argue that abortion is wrong because it kills human life. On the other hand, there are people who are in favor of abortion are known as pro-choice. They believeRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Abortion800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesimportant to critically think out the whole situation. It is very important to not make irrationa l decisions. In order to help make the best decision the pros and cons should be taken into consideration. The pros of having an abortion could be but not limited to, being unable to financially afford a child. There may be health risk for the woman so an abortion may save a life. The pregnancy may have been a result of violent crime or assault. Ã¢â¬Å"The Hyde Amendment refers to an amendment firstRead MorePros And Cons Of Abortion983 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Murder or Not? Ã¢â¬Å"In 2013, 664,435 legal induced abortions were reported to CDC from 49 reporting areas. The abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15Ã¢â¬â44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births.Ã¢â¬ (cdc.gov) Over half a million abortions in one year alone that happened in the U.S.A, and that does not even take into account the rest of the world. Abortion is the act of intentionally terminating a human pregnancy, usually done before the third trimesterRead MoreAbortion Pros and Cons7190 Words Ã |Ã 29 PagesRunning Head: ABORTION PROS AND CONS Critical Issue Analysis Paper (Pros Cons) Mandy Diaz University of Phoenix Oscar Gonzalez, M.A. RES 110/ Introduction to Research and Information Utilization August 13, 2007 Abstract When people think of abortion some people think of killing a human while others think different. When you talk to people about abortion some people are against it and some are for abortion. Abortion Pros and Cons Abortion to people takes a life of a human. It isRead More Abortions Pros and Cons Essay1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesanswer is. They also have pros and cons. One of the most complex problems is abortion. This is due to moral and ethical values which we all have. The majority of us are Christians or are brought up in that kind of ambiance which means that as small children we were taught values that are based on the bible such as that famous phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Thou shall not killÃ¢â¬ . This phrase relates to this topic because an abortion is the murder of a human being. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A 52% of women getting abortions performed on them areRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Abortion946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortion is a highly controversial topic that has been debated for years. There are two main categories that people generally fall into when discussing abortions. These categories are Pro-Choice and Pro-Life. I, myself fall into the Pro-Choice category. I believe that woman should be able to choose what is best for themselves, and should not have to jump religious and politic hurdles to do so. Many people that believe in Pro-Life, do so for religious reasons. I do not believe in the mixing of religionRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Abortion924 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortion is a rather sensitive topic that carries various and strong personal opinions. The first question is what is an abortion? Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by removing or expelling the fetus or embryo from the uterus before it is ready for birth. It has become one of th e most controversial arguments in the world having to decide between pro-choice or pro-life. Religious conservatives side with the opinion that being pro-choice is a crime and a sin. Juxtaposed to the right toRead MoreEssay Pros and Cons of Abortion3507 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesPros and Cons of Abortion Should a list of pros and cons of abortion really be necessary for Christians...or human beings for that matter? I mean, have we really reached a point where we cannot tell that abortion is murderous no matter how you color it or try to paint it as compassionate? Apparently so. Thirty plus years after the infamous Supreme Court decision in Roe versus Wade and thirty one years after my own timely birth, I sit in awe at the ignorance of a great portion of society..Read More Abortion: Pro and Con Essay1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbortion: Pro and Con In a pluralistic culture of unwanted pregnancy, there exists a contradiction between a relative sense of morality and the democratic ideal of free choice.Ã Aristotle provided the first written record of this irresolvable contradiction in his book Politics, saying, When couples have children in excess, let abortion be procured before sense and life have begun; what may or may not be lawfully done in these cases depends on the question of life and sensation. (1)Ã The controversyRead MoreCorruption : The Pros And Cons Of Abortion982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof abortion and whether or not it should be legal. Many people who are pro-choice believe that it should be left up to a woman to choose what to do with her body and whether or not she wants to give life to another human being, while others believe that abortion is murder and the woman and the doctor who chooses to perform such criminal acts should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. During the 2016 run for Presidency Donald Trump also agreed with those who believe that abortion should
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Great Expectations as Social Commentary During the nineteenth century, British society was dominated and ruled by a tightly woven system of class distinctions. Social relations and acceptance were based upon position. Charles Dickens utilizes Great Expectations as a commentary on the system of class and each persons place within it. In the character of Pip, Dickens demonstrates the working class obsession to overthrow their limitations and re-invent new lives. Dickens also uses Pip and various other characters to show that escape from ones origins is never possible, and attempting to do so only creates confusion and suffering. Ultimately Dickens shows that trying to overthrow ones social rank is never possible;Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Dickens heroes . . . have never experienced this perfect security. Each becomes aware of himself as isolated from all that is out-side of himself. (251) As an orphan, Pip must search for and define his own condition. The beginning of the novel is therefore the starting point of Pips quest to find his place in life. As the narrator of his own story he tells us of his need to become someone else, I called myself Pip, and came to be called Pip (23; ch. 1). By re-naming himself, Pip is also trying to overthrow his limitations. The means by which he can do this arrives with the presence of Magwitch. Magwitch, a convict, appears like a ghost rising up from the grave. He seizes Pip, threatens to kill him, holds him upside down, and forces Pip to steal food and a file for him. Pip returns home to procure the items that Magwitch has demanded. Feeling compassion for Magwitch, who he last saw clasping himself, as if to hold himself together (27; ch. 1) from the cold; Pip also steals a bottle of brandy. The following morning he returns and gives them to Magwitch. The convict is forever grateful to Pip for bringing him the items. Years later, he becomes the silent benefactor of Pip, giving his boy the chance to become a gentleman. The graveyard scene is an important moment in the novel. While heldShow MoreRelatedEssay on Dickens Social Commentary in Great Expectations1882 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDickens Social Commentary in Great ExpectationsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Charles Dickens Great Expectations stands as one of the most highly revered works in all of English literature. The novels perennial appeal lies in its penetrating depictions of character, rich panoramas of social milieu, and implicit crusades against social evils.1 Dickens used the growth of his characters in Great Expectations, particularly Pip, in relation to others to write about social reform, and most effectively illustratedRead MoreBook Review- One Crazy Summer870 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages but to do in a way that is comfortable for readers in this age group. One Crazy Summer is a good example of young adult literature of highlighting cultural/historical events and entertaining to its audience. Two characteristics that make this a great novel for middle school readers is that 1- It encourages further inquiry( historical) and 2-The situations and characters are relatable (Y/A novel). The story is set in 1968 in Oakland, California three young girls Delphine, Vonetta, and Fern who leaveRead MoreAnalysis Of Aphra Behn s The History Of The Nun And Eliza Haywood s Fantomina978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat is meant to be a commentary on social or political issues, masked under the guise of entertaining and fictional, is a tool implemented by authors and activists for centuries. While not all satire is as overt as Jonathan SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestion that we eat the babies, it does not diminish the eyebrow raising suggestions that are conveyed once the meaning has been discovered. In Aphra BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s The History of the Nun and Eliza HaywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Fantomina, the established expectations of the female role withinRead MoreSocietal Influence on Nineteenth Century Marriages in Pride and Prejudice1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesaround the life and romantic affairs of the Bennett sisters and their family in the English countryside. Seen as a lady-like romance novel, Pride and Prejudice seems like a light read, but in reality Jane Austen uses her novel to make scathing commentary about nineteenth century society in England. Pride and Prejudice contrast the marriages of Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennett and Mr. Collins and Charlotte Lucas to show how nineteenth century English societyÃ¢â¬â¢s view of a perfect marriage was oftenRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations: End Analysis1039 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand tone of the novel. The ending must also leave the reader with the impact intended by the author. In other words, an ending is what the author is really trying to say. The global, political, and social commentary in literature is embedded in the way the narrative ends. In the case of Great Expectations, Charles Dickens ultimately selected the ending in which Pip and Estella are reunited, leaving open the precise way their newfound emotional intimacy will develop. This is the most logical, as wellRead More Kenneth FearingÃ¢â¬â¢s Dirge Essay1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIt is against this traditional definition that Kenneth FearingÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Ã¢â¬Å"DirgeÃ¢â¬ , is working, not only as an overt commentary on the social, cultural, and political factors surrounding the destabilization of 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s America but also as an abstraction of the prevalent views of reality: the dehumanization of the human. Fearing superimposes these thematic projects onto the context of the Great Depression, a period of American history often seen as representing overarching society decline, the dull malaiseRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Victorian era was a period of great change in England in terms of social, political, and even scientific advancement. The country became highly regarded around the world, whereby London was the center of excellence and was characterized by its citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s high moral standards. The pressure on Englishmen to maintain a respectable persona among others was s o tremendous that often reputations were damaged at the slightest deviation from social norms. Similarly to the faÃ §ade of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s perfectionRead More Equality and Social Class in Pygmalion Essay1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEquality and Social Class in Pygmalion Ã Ã Ã The idea of ranking individuals based upon their wealth and behaviors has endured through all cultures, countries, and times.Ã George Benard Shaws Pygmalion addresses an individuals capability to advance through society, an idea as old as social distinction.Ã Shaw does so through the social parable of a young English flower girl named Eliza Dolittle, who after receiving linguistic training assumes the role of a duchess.Ã She receives instructionRead MoreWhat are Dystopian Novels?966 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesarrangements and threaten upheaval of the utopia sold by the ruling class. Dystopian work is often an overt commentary on Ã¢â¬Å"social and political structuresÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"UtopianÃ¢â¬ ) present at the time of their writing, though the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s observations and predications of calamity are usually set far in the future. Veronica RothÃ¢â¬â¢s Divergent follows this tradition, setting the story 100 years after a great war, where the citizens have been segregated into five factions to maintain peace. This manner of keeping peaceRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe understanding of social, historical and cultural contexts through the reflections of illicit and explicit similarities and differences in the values and attributes presented. Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s 1813 novel Pride and Prejudice and Fay WeldonÃ¢â¬â¢s 1993 epistolary text Letters to Alice, both challenge the worth of their time as contexts change, but values are upheld. WeldonÃ¢â¬â¢s reflection on AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s nineteenth century environment, conv eys to responders how marriage, gender roles and social class continue to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Outrageous Best Research Paper Tips Why Almost Everything You've Learned About Best Research Paper Is Wrong There are only a few measures to that it is possible to include in all your research papers are a few experiments which you've conducted related to the topic or responses from real men and women. Regardless of the simple fact that writing a paper may seem to be meticulous and troublesome in start, it genuinely isn't very muddled once you the precise format and data flow to receive it completed. Writing a research paper is an important facet of academics and shouldn't be avoided on account of someone's anxiety. It is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account. A dependable research paper writing services provider should enable clients to receive plagiarism free customized research papers online all of the times. So, the businesses should employ a paper writer with a wide array of expertise. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Mobile is one of the most successful companies in the oil and energy industries today. But what makes them so successful? In an effort to answer this question, a thorough internal investigation can be helpful in determining what aspects of this company are making it an industry leader. Two aspects of this internal analysis of Exxon Mobile are the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and capabilities. Resources One of the most reputable resources that Exxon Mobil has today is a strong brand name. Exxon Mobil operates all over the world and is recognized in every part of the world (Datamonitor, 2008). When people all over the world know who a company is, what they do, and where they are located, the company gains a unique competitive advantage over the rest of the industry. A good way to analyze this resource is to use the VRINE Model (Strategic Management, 2007). This breaks down in order to analyze its value, rarity, inimitability, and exploitability. For this resource IÃ¢â¬â¢ll start by assessing its value. The question that must be answered is, Ã¢â¬Å"does this resource allow the firm to meet market demand or protect the firm from market uncertainties? Ã¢â¬ (Strategic Management, 2007). In the case of the brand name resource, I believe that it gives them ample protection against uncertainty and enables them to compete, if not lead, in the industry. Exxon operates in over 200 countries around the world (Datamonitor, 2008) The fact that this company is present all over the world, and not many other industry competitors operate in so many different regions, proves that this particular resource is very valuable to the company. If a company can possess something that another company cannot, value is inevitably created for that resource. This resource also protects them from uncertainty because this brand is already established itself within the market and can thrive in it without too much concern about the well being of the company, thus limiting some uncertainty. Next in the VRINE model is assessment of its rarity. Do any other companies possess such worldwide recognition as Exxon MobilÃ¢â¬â¢s brand name can bring? There are some companies that have come close in competing with Exxon Mobil, such as ConnocoPhillips and Chevron, but none can compare with the unique profitability and opportunities that the name Exxon can bring to a region. The name is undoubtedly trusted throughout the world and rarely rivaled. Those aspects of the brand name recognition make this brand name a rarity. The next step in the VRINE model is to assess the inimitability. To assess this, the question of can competitors Ã¢â¬Å"acquire the valuable and rare resource quickly, or will they face a cost disadvantage in doing so? Ã¢â¬ (Strategic Management, 2007). The simple fact that the Exxon Mobil name is trademarked and registered makes it impossible for any other company to replicate its name. Also it would cost a substantial amount to buy out the company and gain its name. This alone makes the brand name inimitable. Now assessment of the nonsubstitutability is needed. The question arises, Ã¢â¬Å"is there protection against ready substitutes? Ã¢â¬ (Strategic Management, 2007). For Exxon, their name reputation is one that substitutes have a very difficult time matching. Exxon is leading the industry and continues to be a leader of almost every aspect of the industry today. Though substitutes are present in the industry, none can surpass the reputation of Exxon Mobil. The final step in the VRINE Model is to assess the resourceÃ¢â¬â¢s exploitability. The question to answer is, can the firm Ã¢â¬Å" nurture and take advantage of the resources and capabilities that it possesses? Ã¢â¬ (Strategic Management, 2007). For Exxon, they can bring the company anywhere in the world and use the recognizable name to establish credibility and power in that region. This gives the company a considerable advantage when it comes to exploiting its brand name to establish the company around the world. After analyzing the resource using the VRINE Model, all aspects of the model have been met, so it is safe to say that this resource can give them a competitive advantage among its competitors. Another important resource that Exxon possesses is the presence of human expertise capital throughout the company (Datamoitor, 2008). Exxon employs many scientists and engineers that are researching and finding new ways to gain access to more energy resources and make the new innovations less harmful to the environment (Annual Report, 2007). This human capital has proven to be a very important resource for the company as shown by their development of new ways to increase liquid natural gas supplies and Ã¢â¬Å"enhancing heavy oil recoveryÃ¢â¬ (Annual Report, 2007). Using the VRINE model again, I will assess this resource. In analyzing the value of the human expertise capital, again we must consider whether this resource helps the company meet market demand and can eliminate some uncertainty. In this case, I believe that the unique research department that houses these scientists and engineers is one that gives the company a great capability to compete in the market, and even excel within the industry. I believe it also eliminates some uncertainty because while the company is researching and developing cutting edge technology, it keeps them knowledgeable about all the new innovations and ideas that are throughout the industry. This makes the resource very valuable. Next, the rarity of the resource must be analyzed. I believe that this resource is rare because of the entire department (the Upstream Research Center) within the company devoted to letting these scientists and engineers use their knowledge to propel the company into the future (Annual Report, 2007). Some companies have R D departments, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t posses the funding for such expertise and capabilities within these departments like Exxon has in its Upstream Research Center (Annual Report, 2007). This makes the breadth of their scientists and engineers and rare resource among it competitors. Following the VRINE Model, inimitability is the next aspect to analyze. I believe that it would be very difficult for any company to gain the human expertise capital that Exxon has. Exxon pays particular attention to its scientists and engineers by providing opportunities to use their knowledge to help solve every day problems that the company is facing. Many of these scientists and engineers had PhDs in their respective fields, thus making their ideas more credible and valuable to the company (Annual Report, 2007). This make the human expertise capital an inimitable resource because it makes it hard for other companies to replicate the magnitude of the distinguished human capital that Exxon possesses. The next step in the VRINE Model is nonsubstitutability. It would be nearly impossible for a competing company to substitute an equally effective team of engineers and scientists. The cost would be too great for the company. Exxon is leading the way in Research and Development trends, and substitutes for the quality of employees that Exxon has would be very difficult for other companies, making the nonsubstitutability of ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s human capital very high. The final step is to analyze the exploitability of the human expertise capital. Exxon has proven that the expertise that is present can be exploited to develop new and innovative ideas that help Exxon maintain as an industry leader. One example of the result of this exploitation is the development of Metallyte UBW-ES, which is a new polypropylene film for packaging that has unprecedented sealing power (Datamonitor, 2008). This example proves that the exploitability of this human expertise capital makes this resource a valuable asset to the company. After analysis of the human expertise capital resource using the VRINE Model, it can be said that this resource gives Exxon Mobil a competitive advantage in the industry. Capabilities After assessing the resources that Exxon has available to them, it is now easier to illustrate what ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities are because of the acquisition and ownership of these resources. One of ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s important capabilities is their extensive research and development capabilities. ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s research and development capabilities are very dynamic in the sense that as new energy conservation and developments arise, they can adapt their research and development departments to meet the new technologies and innovations. Their research and development capabilities go insofar as to Ã¢â¬Å"improve existing products, and enhance serviceÃ¢â¬ (Datamonitor, 2008). Using the VRINE Model again, it can be easy to see if this capability really gives Exxon a considerable competitive advantage. First we have to look at the value of this capability. Exxon has utilized the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s valuable resource of human expertise capital do help head the research for new improvements and innovations that help lead the way for Exxon to grow (Annual Report, 2007). One such innovation is the development of Enable mPE, which has Ã¢â¬Å"substantially reduced waste and energy consumption across a wide variety of film applicationsÃ¢â¬ (Datamonitor, 2008). This capability allows them compete within the market and gain headway in developing potentially high profit innovations, thus giving value to their research and development capability. Next the rarity needs to be assessed. Though almost all of ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors have research and development departments, none have invested the amount that Exxon has. Also there are only a handful of top competitors within the energy industry so that alone makes ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s R D department rare. In fiscal year 2007, Exxon invested $814 million in R D. Though the idea of an R D department is not a rarity in its own right, the amount invested and products produced because of their extensive R D work makes this a rare capability among its competitors. The next assessment in the VRINE Model is the inimitability of this capability. As mentioned before many other companies have a R D department, but not to the extent that ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s is being funded and operated. In the past 5 years, Exxon has invested upwards of $3. 5 billion in research and development alone (Annual Report, 2007). Very few of ExxonÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors can match that without having an almost impossible financial obligation afterward. That is one feat that few companies can imitate. The next step is to analyze its nonsubstitutability.
Friday, April 3, 2020
Introduction The origin of African state in the modern period dates back to the pre-colonial era. African history and modern are totally different, and its contemporary political and economic structures are different. Africa state has failed because of internal corruption, poor governance and hostile external environment, but this can be improved. Southern Africa state is one of the recognized states in Africa.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Nationalist state in southern Africa specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are several empirical and socially constructed attributes that can be identified in Southern African region. Most of the contemporary states, in Southern Africa, region share the same colonial and postcolonial history. The region was originally colonized by Portuguese on both coasts, today these are Mozambique and Angola. The Dutch colonized South Africa. Angola, Mozambique, and Namibia were under the German rule. The other Southern countries were under the imperial British (Gerhart 143). Today the Anglo linguistic, political and economic heritage is a similar feature in most of these countries. Liberation movements in Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Mozambique and Southern Africa resorted to armed struggle to attain independence. The Cold war generated apartheid in South Africa, which campaigned for regional destabilization against neighboring countries, and the effect was felt in all Southern African countries. In this case, were going to discuss the nationalism in South Africa as an institution of democracy and development, as well as an obstacle preventing the achievement of these goals. South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s nationalist state South Africa is a country, which is found in the Southern part of Africa. It consists of nine provinces. Its neighbors to the north are Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. To the east its neighbor is Mozambique and Swaziland. Lesotho is surrounded by South African territory. The country comprises of several ethnic groups and has different cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognized by the government of South Africa. Two of these languages originated from Europe, Afrikaans and South African English. All of the ethnic tribes and languages are politically represented in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s constitutional democracy. In South Africa, the head of state is also the head of government, he is known as the dependent president. Majority of South African population is of black African origin. This population is divided into several ethnic groups speaking various Bantu languages. The country has many tribes of European, Asian and racially mixed origins in Africa. According to the World Bank, South Africa is an upper middle, income economy together with Botswana, Gabon and Mauritius.Advertising Looking for research paper on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Le arn More The country is ranked as the biggest economy in Africa and is the 28th largest economy in the world. Around 25% of the population is unemployed; South Africa was colonized by both British and Boers (Gerhart 123). South Africa was known as Cape Town, and it became a British colony in 1806. In 1820s, the Dutch and the British acquired land in the north and east of South Africa. The Great Britain acquired full control of the Cape of Good Hope in 1795. It also returned Cape Town to the Dutch in the year 1803. In early 19th century, the Zulu community dominated the country and extended their territory under their leader Shaka the Zulu. In 1830s, the Boers founded the South Africa republic. In 1867 diamond was discovered and gold was discovered in 1884 (Benson 213). The discovery of these minerals led to the mineral revolution and increased economic growth and immigration. There was a struggle to control these resources between the indigenous people and Europeans, also between the Boers and the British. During the first Boer war (1880-1881), the Boers revolted against the British encroachments by using guerrilla warfare tactics, which suited the local environment. The British, retaliated with a great number of soldiers, and a new strategy was developed in the second Boer war (1899-1902), and they succeeded. During the colonial era, racial segregation was not formalized, although some regulations were put in place to govern the activities of the local people. In 1909 union of South Africa was created. This union was dominated by the British Empire. It restricted the black people from owning land in South Africa. At this time, the indigenous people controlled only 7% of the country. Racial segregation was legally institutionalized by the British, and it was later known as apartheid. The British government identified three racial classes, white, colored and the black. In 1931the union was given independence from the British government. The South African part y and the national party combined to form united party. The national party was elected to power in 1948, and it strengthened the racial segregation. The nationalist government group people into three racial categories and developed rights and restrictions for each.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Nationalist state in southern Africa specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The few white people controlled the large number of people. The racial segregation was referred to as apartheid. The white minority people in South Africa lived a high standard of life while the black majority people were living in poor condition. In 1961the country became a republic and left the commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth was no longer the head of state, and the last governor general was elected as the president. The government continued embracing apartheid despite a lot of opposition from people within and outside the country. Some weste rn countries and organizations started boycotting, doing business with South Africa. The government oppressed the apartheid resistance movements and violence became wide spread in South Africa. The national party government lifted the ban on the African national congress and other political movements in 1991. In 1994, South Africa held its first general election, which Africa National Congress won by a big margin. South Africa rejoined the common wealth in the same year. Nationalism is a political ideology which means, the identification of a group of people with apolitical entity described in national terms. Nationalism creates national identity. It is a notion that one country is superior to all other states. It can also be described as the return to a national past and sometimes forcing foreigners out of the country. It involves the establishment of an independent sate as a home for an ethnic community. National flags and national anthems symbolize the identity of a nation. It is related to the modern state and the push for sovereignty. It has become the most influential political and social factors in history. The nationalist state is an institution for bringing democracy and development, although it also hinders achievement of these goals. This is evident as it gives the political leaders an opportunity to manipulate the people of a certain nation. In South Africa, nationalism started in the 19th century due to the impact of Christian missions and the enactment of a non racial constitution in Cape Town. Mission educated Africans enhance significant influence within Cape politics. By the end of the century, a new African elite group had emerged which was committed to non racial ideologies. In 20th century, several ideas were developed including a radical expectation that Africans would have to establish their own political power for the reform of society. South Africa experienced the development of moderate African nationalism concerned with non-radical id eas. The development of Cape constitution was intended to improve the social conditions of Africans.Advertising Looking for research paper on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More African elites began to emerge such as teachers, ministers of religion, farmers, clerks and editors. Political leaders in South Africa relied on the ideals of the Cape constitution. Today South Africa is an independent state this implies that it is a nationalist state . Nationalism has led to democracy in South Africa. On the hand, it is common that the economic growth rate after 15 years of democracy has led to problems of poverty and Un- employment. This has resulted to military protests, violent action by both protesters and the police. The government of South Africa believes that the effective state institutions are a central characteristic; this has caused ineffectiveness within South Africa. Nationalism has also led to bureaucracy within the government hospitals and provincial health departments; this is a hindrance to the development of medical facilities. It is a western route to development. In South Africa, it has led to development of modern infrastructures and other faci lities. On the other hand, it asserts the identity of a national culture. Hence nationalism is seen to reject and accept the dominance of western culture. It has led to the establishment of advanced technology in South Africa. On the other hand, the modern technology is demanding. Nationalism in South Africa has led to the formation of a black class, which is a, central policy, and it is a form of racial segregation. On the other hand, it is a strategy for breaking the domination of whites in South Africa. Employment equity legislation in South Africa encourages the employment of black Africans; this helps the state to use its resources to form black business class. On the hand, failure to involve the whites in the employment program hinders development and democracy. The shortage of skills causes opportunities for upward mobility within the bureaucracy. The upward mobility leads to high turn over among the employees. The affirmative action in South African public service helps in l eaving vacant positions, which there are no suitably qualified blacks, rather than employing qualified white candidates. This idea of nationalism has led to poor performance in the public service which hinders development in South Africa. Corruption is also very rampant in the government institutions, in South Africa. In post apartheid bureaucracy, incompetent workers are employed on the basis of race. For instance, a female white applied for a job in Chris Hani Baragwaneth Hospital and her appointment was highly rejected by black managers on racial grounds. It is difficult to find white doctors or nurses willing to work in rural hospitals . This has led to poor health conditions in these hospitals, causing deaths of several patients. Nationalism and skepticism towards the western scientific knowledge has created problems in African countries. In South Africa, it led to the breakdown of relationship between South African government and the AIDS lobby group. The government of South A frica organized a play sarafina 2 to make people aware of HIV/AIDS; this play was marred with a lot of racist stereotyping. It results to criticism from AIDS activists and opposition parties. The government leaders became upset and were defensive. This led to disagreement between government leaders such as Health minister Nkosazana Zuma and AIDS activists. This case demonstrated assertiveness in nationalism and dismissing western science. In South Africa, African sovereignty is associated with culture of extreme difference towards political leadership and authority. For example, when a minister is visiting a hospital, there is a lot of effort to make it presentable; nurses are deployed to ensure that the hospital is in excellent condition. This portrays a different picture from the real situation, which is a problem of nationalism. The National party government was the driving force of Afrikaner nationalization in South Africa; this has been described by similar contradictions to Af rican nationalism, which replaced it. Many organizations in South Africa have suffered a decline in terms of quality performance. Many public institutions suffer from the problem of under budgeting; this involves understaffing, and increase work loads as well as shortage of equipments and constant system breakdowns. At the end of the financial year, head office officials put pressure on the managers to reduce costs. This leads to wastage of highly paid specialists and expensive equipments are left idle. Nationalism is a tool of development which requires political will, and determination on the party of the countries political elite. In South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s case, most of the political leaders are selfish, and they manipulate the poor majority. This has put South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy in danger. Since the end of apartheid politics, South Africa has been dominated by African National Congress. The main opposition party to ANC is the Democratic Alliance . Since independence, the c ountry has had several protests. This is mostly organized by the growing shanty towns in South Africa. The protests are as a result of poor quality leadership. Today, South Africa has a mixed economy which comprises of high poverty rate and low Gross Domestic Product. It has a high rate of unemployment, and it is ranked among top 10 countries in the world with the highest income inequality. The rate of unemployment has worsened since independence, which has hindered the development in South Africa. The government of South Africa has developed black economic empowerment policies as a tool of nationalism. These policies have received critics from the Development Bank of Southern Africa, as it leads to broad economic disparities. Affirmative action policies have led to increase in black economic development and an establishment of the black middle class . Nationalism has led to state ownership by the political class, which put high barriers to entry in many areas. The barriers have led to reduction in the development of international trade. It has also led to the establishment of restrictive labor laws, which has significantly contributed to unemployment problems. About 47 percent of South Africans lives below the poverty line . The country has a very wide income gap between the richest citizens and the poorest. It has also a wide gap between per capita GNP and its human development index. These differences hinder the improvement of democracy and economic development in South Africa. Nationalism has also caused income inequality problem, which is greatly influenced by the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s apartheid legacy. The differences in income among the people of South Africa are identified along racial lines. Nationalism is directly related to racism and fascism. It is an invention by the political class to win the loyalty of the working class. Nationalist state hinders development in many Southern Africa countries. Today there is evidence in improving the problems of natio nalism in southern African countries. For instance, countries in Southern Africa are currently enhancing political and economic transition. This will lead to improvement of democracy, and enhancement of economic development. South Africa has established democratic constitutions, and respect to the rule of law since acquiring independence in 1994. Currently Botswana has been categorized as one of the advanced countries in Africa as far as democracy is concerned. Zambia and Malawi made political transition in 1990s from a single part rule to multiparty political system. Mozambique has made a political transition from three decades of war, which has resulted to a period of reconstruction and economic development. In Angola, the death of the rebel leader Jonas Savimbi in 2002, led to an end to decades of war. This has resulted to economic and political transition in this country. In South Africa per capita gross domestic products has increased since 2002 . South Africa has also adopted neoliberal economic reform this is known as structural adjustment programs (SAPs). These programs were developed by the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, to enhance economic transformation. The establishment of Southern African Development Community (SADC) has led to economic development of southern African countries. This is due to improvement of regional trade relations and regional cooperation in areas such as, politics, transport and health. South Africa has the largest economy in Africa; this has helped the country in negotiating international accords to benefit from international trade. Namibia and South Africa are closely related, and this has helped in the improvement of social cultural set up and economic development in these countries. HIV/AIDS, epidemic is the most significant threat facing southern Africa region. The rapid spread of this epidemic in the region has hindered development progress. It also threatens political stability; however, the government s of these countries are focusing on strategies, to reduce the rapid spread. In contemporary Southern Africa, women have been involved in political activities, to enhance political development. Southern Africa countries have the highest number of women representatives in national politics in the world. South Africa has developed international relations and political linkages which have led to economic development. Conclusion Nationalism is a belief that people belong together because they were born in the same country. It came about in the recent centuries, and it has led to wars. It leads to exploitation of majority poor people by minority national elite. It violates the rights of the minority people. It solidifies the sovereignty of the political class over working and poor people. It originated from Europe and was brought to Africa through colonization. In Africa, the rich people in the cities started nationalistÃ¢â¬â¢s movements. In southern Africa state nationalism is seen as an institution of achieving democracy and economic development. Nationalism is a paradox as it also hinders the achievement of these goals. In South Africa, the black nationalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideology tends to segregate the whites hence negative impacts on economic development. African political leaders have betrayed people through persuading them with nationalist sentiments to fight and die for their country. Finally, although nationalism in southern Africa state has hindered development, it has also improved democracy in these countries. Southern Africa state is the most dynamic and has the largest economy in the African continent. Works Cited Benson, Mary. South Africa:the struggle for a birth right. Pretoria: Funk Wagnalls, 2002. Print. Gerhart, Gail. Black politics in South Africa. California: University of California Press, 2006. Print. Lodge, Tom. Black politics in South Africa. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2008. Print. Welsh, Peter. The rise of African nationalism i n South Africa. London: C.Hurst Co.Publishers, 2000. Print. This research paper on Nationalist state in southern Africa was written and submitted by user Kody D. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
A History of the German Revolution of 1918 19 In 1918 Ã¢â¬â 19 Imperial Germany experienced a socialist-heavy revolution that, despite some surprising events and even a small socialist republic, would bring a democratic government. The Kaiser was rejected and a new parliament based at Weimar took over. However, Weimar ultimately failed and the question of whether the seeds of that failure began in the revolution if 1918-19 has never been decisively answered. Germany Fractures in World War One Like the other countries of Europe, much of Germany went into World War One believing it would be a short war and a decisive victory for them. But when the western front ground to a stalemate and the eastern front proved no more promising, Germany realized it had entered into a prolonged process it was poorly prepared for. The country began to take the necessary measures to support the war, including mobilizing an enlarged workforce, dedicating more manufacturing to arms and other military supplies, and taking strategic decisions they hoped would give them an advantage. The war went on through the years, and Germany found itself increasingly stretched, so much so it began to fracture. Militarily, the army stayed an effective fighting force until 1918, and widespread disillusion and failures stemming from morale only crept in towards the end, although there were some earlier revolts. But before this, the steps taken in Germany to do everything for the military saw the Ã¢â¬Ëhome frontÃ¢â¬â¢ experience problems, and there was a marked change in morale from early 1917 onward, with strikes at one point numbering a million workers. Civilians were experiencing food shortages, exacerbated by the failure of the potato crop over the 1916-17 winter. There were also fuel shortages, and deaths from hunger and cold more than doubled over the same winter; flu was widespread and lethal. Infant mortality was also growing considerably, and when this was coupled with the families of the two million dead soldiers and the many millions wounded, you had a populace th at was suffering. In addition, while working days grew longer, inflation was making goods ever more expensive, and ever more unaffordable. The economy was on the verge of collapsing. The discontent among German civilians was not limited to either the working or middle classes, as both felt an increasing hostility to the government. Industrialists were also a popular target, with people convinced they were making millions from the war effort while everyone else suffered. As the war went deep into 1918, and the German offensives failed, the German nation seemed to be on the verge of splitting, even with the enemy still not on German soil. There was pressure from the government, from campaign groups and others to reform a government system that seemed to be failing. Ludendorff sets the Time Bomb Imperial Germany was supposed to be run by the Kaiser, Wilhelm II, aided by a Chancellor. However, over the final years of the war, two military commanders had taken control of Germany: Hindenburg and Ludendorff. By mid-1918 Ludendorff, the man with the practical control suffered both a mental breakdown and a long-feared realization: Germany was going to lose the war. He also knew that if the allies invaded Germany it would have a peace forced on it, and so he took actions which he hoped would bring a gentler peace deal under Woodrow WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Fourteen Points: he asked for the German Imperial autocracy to be transformed into a constitutional monarchy, keeping the Kaiser but bringing in a new level of effective government. Ludendorff had three reasons for doing this. He believed the democratic governments of Britain, France, and the United States would be more willing to work with a constitutional monarchy than the Kaiserriech, and he believed that the change would head off the social revolt he feared the warÃ¢â¬â¢s failure would trigger as blame and anger were redirected. He saw the neutered parliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s calls for change and feared what they would bring if left unmanaged. But Ludendorff had a third goal, a far more pernicious and costly one. Ludendorff didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the army to take the blame for the warÃ¢â¬â¢s failure, nor did he want his high-powered allies to do so either. No, what Ludendorff wanted was to create this new civilian government and make them surrender, to negotiate the peace, so they would be blamed by the German people and the army would still be respected. Unfortunately for Europe in the mid-twentieth century, Ludendorff was entirely successful, starting the myth tha t Germany had been Ã¢â¬Ëstabbed in the backÃ¢â¬â¢, and helping the fall of Weimer and the rise of Hitler. Revolution from Above A strong Red Cross supporter, Prince Max of Baden became chancellor of Germany in October 1918, and Germany restructured its government: for the first time the Kaiser and the Chancellor were made answerable to the parliament, the Reichstag: the Kaiser lost command of the military, and the Chancellor had to explain himself, not to the Kaiser, but parliament. As Ludendorff hoped, this civilian government was negotiating an end to the war. Germany Revolts However, as the news spread across Germany that the war was lost, shock set in, then the anger Ludendorff and others had feared. So many had suffered so much and been told they were so close to victory that many werenÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfied with the new system of government. Germany would move swiftly into revolution. Sailors at a naval base near Kiel rebelled on October 29, 1918, and as the government lost control of the situation other major naval bases and ports also fell to revolutionaries. The sailors were angry at what was happening and were trying to prevent the suicide attack some naval commanders had ordered to try and recover some honor. News of these revolts spread, and everywhere it went soldiers, sailors and workers joined them in rebelling. Many set up special, soviet style councils to organize themselves, and Bavaria actually expelled their fossil King Ludwig III and Kurt Eisner declared it a socialist republic. The October reforms were soon being rejected as not enough, both by the revolutionaries and the old order who needed a way to manage events. Max Baden hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t wanted to expel the Kaiser and family from the throne, but given that the latter was reluctant to make any other reforms, Baden had no choice, and so it was decided that the Kaiser would be replaced by a left-wing government led by Friedrich Ebert. But the situation at the heart of government was chaos, and first a member of this government - PhilippÃ Scheidemann Ã¢â¬â declared that Germany was a republic, and then another called it a Soviet Republic. The Kaiser, already in Belgium, decided to accept military advice that his throne was gone, and he exiled himself to Holland. The Empire was over. Left Wing Germany in Fragments Ebert and Government At the end of 1918, the government looked like it was falling apart, as the SPD was moving from the left to the right in an ever more desperate attempt to gather support, while the USPD pulled out to focus on more extreme reform. The Spartacists Revolt Bolsheviks The Results: The National Constituent Assembly Thanks to EbertÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership and the quelling of extreme socialism, Germany in 1919 was led by a government which had changed at the very top Ã¢â¬â from an autocracy to a republic Ã¢â¬â but in which key structures like land ownership, industry and other businesses, the church, the military and the civil service, remained pretty much the same. There was great continuity and not the socialist reforms that the country seemed in a position to carry through, but neither had there been large-scale bloodshed. Ultimately, it can be argued that the revolution in Germany was a lost opportunity for the left, a revolution that lost its way, and that socialism lost a chance to restructure before Germany and the conservative right grew ever more able to dominate. Revolution? Although it is common to refer to these events as a revolution, some historians dislike the term, viewing the 1918-19 as either a partial / failed revolution, or an evolution from the Kaiserreich, which might have taken place gradually if World War One had never occurred. Many Germans who lived through it also thought it was only half a revolution, because while the Kaiser had gone, the socialist state they had wanted was also absent, with the leading socialist party heading up a middle ground. For the next few years, left-wing groups would attempt to push the Ã¢â¬ËrevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ further, but all failed. In doing so, the center allowed the right to remain to crush the left.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Marcating communication - Essay Example To make IMC an ongoing successful process, Unilever needs to allocate funds for this purpose separately and ensure that it maintains reserves so that it can smoothly carry on with its promotional strategies. This would enable the company to run its promotional campaigns smoothly without suffering significant bottlenecks. Marketing communication has become one of the most important aspects that an organisation needs to pay attention to as adoption of proper marketing tools determines the success of the company and its long term sustainability in the industry as a whole. The art of communicating the features of a product to the customers determines whether the product would be an instant hit or would be killed in its early stage of its life cycle. Unilever is one of the leading companyÃ¢â¬â¢s in the consumer goods market offering a host of products starting from consumer durables to personal care and food items. Being a large organisation with almost 400 wellÃ¢â¬âestablished brands, the company has felt the increasing need of integrating the various tools of communication to reach its consumers at large and convince them to use their products. The company has adopted IMC approach to build its niche in the market. This has helped the company to steer its growth in the industry and attract increasing number of customers. Though IMC offers a host of advantages but it also has its own set of disadvantages. The company has estimated that it needs to adopt proper strategies in order to offset the demerits of IMC. To differentiate itself from its competitors, the company has adopted unique modes of communication and has designed its advertisements in such a way that it attracts increasing number of customers. This has made prod ucts of Unilever one of the most demanding amongst the customers across the globe Integrated Marketing